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Hypothetico-deductive Method of Scientific Investigation

>> Thursday, October 05, 2017

It involves identifying a toughest problem, of a given field, to solve. 

  1. Guess a solution/theory that might solve the problem.
  2. List out all the consequences/predictions of one's theory. This step must clarify what one will not accept as a solution, i.e, constraints on potential solutions due to your theory.
  3. Compare the actual evidence ( astronomy, genetics, archeology, geology, climates, botanical, etc) with the consequences/predictions of a theory. Recognize that we can never prove anything but we can falsify. 
  4. The process continues for the remaining observations/evidences. 
A theory that survive numerous such tests and that explains more observations than any other theory is considered a better theory.  Then comes the criticism (rational criticism is what is meant by criticism) and this leads to further testing of a theory.The theory also leads to new problems of higher complexity and one may start the same cycle, using same methodology, in solving those newer challenging problems. The process is iterative.


NASA's List of Potential NEO that might colloid with earth

>> Tuesday, April 02, 2013


Why does the Moon look so huge on the horizon?

>> Saturday, March 30, 2013

1. Is it due to Earth's Atmosphere ?

    No it is not, you can prove by taking photographs of the moon at different elevations from horizon to the zenith and comparing them.

2. Is it an Illusion?
    Yes it is an illusion, illusion of shape. At the horizon due to other close by objects the brain compares it and makes an illusion that the moon is big, but there is no object to compare in the sky and hence brain processes the moon as it is without any illusion. Like many of you might have seen many optical illusion pictures where they give two different shapes and one appears to be smaller but infact both are same if seen separately.. example as blow

The two circles are the same angular diameter. Yet many people judge the right one to be smaller. The two converging straight lines nearby influence our judgment. If the lines are replaced with solid black areas, the illusion remains.
Inline image 1

The two figures are exactly the same size, yet many people judge the upper one to be smaller. But not all persons do. This illusion illustrates how our judgment of shape and size of an object can be influenced by the shapes and sizes of other objects nearby in the field of view.
Inline image 2


Map of Impact Craters on Earth

>> Friday, February 15, 2013


How to measure width of hair using Laser

>> Monday, February 04, 2013


Richard Feynman Playing Bongo's


Standard model of Particle Physics

Informative Video about Standard Model


A Physics Joke

>> Saturday, January 19, 2013


Atoms with Consciousness and Matter with Curiousity

>> Friday, January 18, 2013

There are the rushing waves...
mountains of molecules,
each stupidly minding its own business...
trillions apart
...yet forming white surf in unison.

Ages on ages...
before any eyes could see...
year after year...
thunderously pounding the shore as now.
For whom, for what?
...on a dead planet
with no life to entertain.

Never at rest...
tortured by energy...
wasted prodigiously by the sun...
poured into space.
A mite makes the sea roar.

Deep in the sea,
all molecules repeat
the patterns of another
till complex new ones are formed.
They make others like themselves...
and a new dance starts.

Growing in size and complexity...
living things,
masses of atoms,
DNA, protein...
dancing a pattern ever more intricate.
Out of the cradle
onto dry land...
here it is standing...
atoms with consciousness
...matter with curiosity.
Stands at the sea...
wonders at wondering... I...
a universe of atoms...
an atom in the universe.

By : Richard P. Feynman
Source: "The Value of Science," address to the National Academy of Sciences (Autumn 1955)


My Mars Rover Prototype Project

Phase 1

Phase 2 


My QuadCopter Project

Phase 1 

Phase 2 


Getting Started With Astrophotography

You need to follow four steps to astrophotography:
1. Focus,
2. Frame,
3. Test Exposures,
4. Start Exposure sequence.

In daylight photography all of these are done automatically for you, by the camera (except framing), but in astrophotography you need to keep the steps distinct.

You may like to see three videos which illustrate the above points in detail:

Part 1 - 

Part 2 - 

Part 3 - 


My First Astrophotography


Useful Astronomy Links

>> Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Space News Services

Space Missions and Experiments


Societies and Papers

Other Institutions

Astronomical Software and Data

Astronomical Imagery


General Astronomy

Astronomy & Science Publications


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